Annotated Bibliography

Liam McDonnell


English 102

Prof Mullen

Annotated Bibliography


The issue I am researching is distracted driving. This interests me because distracted driving has always been a topic of concern, but with more hand held devices on the market; there are different distractions at our fingertips while we are behind the wheel. Although distracted driving can apply to texting and calling, they are not the only topics of concern. Snap chatting and driving, using Pokémon go, searching up videos, or using the navigation setting etc., are all considered distracted driving as well, and can put you at risk while behind the wheel. I find this interesting because on a daily basis I see people using these devices in some way while driving, and it is almost as if it is the normal thing to do now. People are generally on their devices for a good portion of the day, and it has begun to follow them into their vehicles because these devices have become so intertwined with society in many different ways.


Curry, Allison E., Jessica Hafetz, Michael J. Kallan, Flaura K. Winston, and Dennis R. Durbin. “Prevelance of Teen Driver Errors Leading to Serious Motor Vehicle Accidents.” Science Direct. Elseiver, 2011. Web.

This scientific article explains a variety of different causes for teen car crashes, and the biggest cause happens to be distracted driving. Teen error is the cause for three quarters of these crashes, and it has nothing to do with their surroundings. Environmental and vehicle problems were rarely the causes for these crashes. 822 teens were involved in 795 serious motor vehicle accidents representing 335,667teens in 325,291 crashes. (Curry) among the crashes the causes was the teen’s error 79.3% of the time. Inadequate surveillance, driving too fast in conditions and distracted driving account for about half of the crashes. This relates to my essay on texting and driving fatalities among teens because texting and driving is the primary distraction when it comes to distracted driving. It has significantly increased since smartphones have become a more common part of society in recent years.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate by Age and Gender; 2012 & amp; 2014 Region 3 – Philadelphia. 28 Aug. 2015. Raw data. N.p.

This data set represents the percentages of motor vehicle fatalities in America based on gender in the years 2012, and 2014, through the ages of 0-55+. After reviewing the data, it is apparent that ages around 21-34 have the most fatality percentages with both genders. Although, this being said, the over all male percentages for all 50 states for both 2012 and 2014, are substantially higher than females, which is an interesting concept. This ties back into distracted driving, and the fact that younger adults are more prone to collisions based on distraction, and may tie into these numbers of fatalities within America. Although, the idea of males being more prone to these collisions has come into perspective. This data was collected in August of 2015 and is organized on an excel sheet presenting the categories horizontally for each state. It was collected from a database named “” It is interesting that it does all ages through 55+ and then does the overall for both genders in these two years, because it makes it clear that the male death rate due to motor vehicle collisions is a lot higher than females.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate by Age and Gender; 2012 & amp; 2014 Region 3 – Philadelphia. 28 Aug. 2015. Raw data. N.p.

The graph I made is a bar graph, and it contains information from all 50 states for just the year of 2014. It presents ages 0-55+ as well as the over all percentages of fatality for male and female. It is named “Motor Vehicle Fatalities in 2014 Based on Age.” The reason I took out all of 2012 is due to the amount of data. It appeared too chaotic and very confusing, and the percentages from 2014 are more up to date. This will emphasize on the amount of people dying due to car crashes in our country, and will bring distracted driving collisions more into perspective. Also, the statistics of younger adult fatalities in this graph are substantially higher than older adults, which can tie into the fact that younger adults are more prone to involve themselves in collision due to distracted driving. Another interesting concept this graph will represent is the younger male statistics as opposed to the females, and why they are more prone to these collisions.



Douglas, Heather E., Magdalena Z. Raban, Scott R. Walter, Johanna I. Westbrook. . (2017) Improving our understanding of multi-tasking in healthcare: Drawing together the cognitive psychology and healthcare literature. Applied Ergonomics 59, 45-55.

This article discusses multi tasking as a whole and its ability to reduce performance in multiple different areas. Multi tasking provides slower productivity and the risk of error increases. When people go about multi tasking they think they are saving time doing multiple things at once, but in reality they are taking longer, and the final product of what they are trying to accomplish is not as good as if they were to tackle each task separately. This ties into distracted driving tremendously because when people try to do multiple things at once in general, they increase their risk of error. This essentially increases the risk of vehicle crashes because an increases risk of error behind the wheel means a higher risk of crash. Multi tasking research on cognitive psychology, driver distraction, and human computer interaction present evidence on multitasking and the extent it impacts efficiency and task performance. (Douglas).


Klauer, Sheila G., Feng Guo, Bruce G. Simmons-Morton, Marie Claude Ouimet, Suzanne E. Lee, and Thomas A. Dingus. “Distracted Driving and Risk of Road Crashes among Novice and Experienced Drivers — NEJM.” New England Journal of Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.

This article discusses texting and driving, as well as other cell phone use and how it contributes to a large portion of teenage and young adult motor vehicle injury and death. It also brings up how distracted driving applies to anything you have to take your eyes off the road to do, which is a huge point I am trying to make in this essay. Various studies were preformed with younger inexperienced drivers, and secondary tasks such as looking at your phone, looking at someone on the side of the road who already was involved in a crash, eating, and several more all increased the risk of crashing among them. (Klauer). This differed from experienced drivers, who primarily had increase risk of crash due to calling and texting. As you can see distracted driving applies to younger adults, but this being said, older adults play a factor in the danger as well. As you get older simple tasks while driving seem to distract the driver less, because they have been on the road longer. Although, no matter what age, taking your eyes off the road for some things can increase your risk of crash no matter what.


Klauer, Sheila G., Feng Guo, Bruce G. Simmons-Morton, Marie Claude Ouimet, Suzanne E. Lee, and Thomas A. Dingus. “Distracted Driving and Risk of Road Crashes among Novice and Experienced Drivers — NEJM.” New England Journal of Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2016.

This graph, titled: Performance of High-Risk Secondary Tasks Among Novice and Experienced Drivers appears with the results of a test between experienced and novice (inexperienced) drivers, backing up that the performance of high-risk secondary tasks does not change that much, regardless of how long the driver has been on the road. Although, the rate that these drivers crash because of preforming these secondary tasks is substantially higher with Novice drivers. Whether it is texting, calling, eating, or sending out an email, etc. these drivers cannot handle taking their eyes off the road as opposed to experienced drivers who are capable of doing more while operating their vehicles. This does not mean that experienced drivers are invincible when preforming these secondary tasks while driving, but their crash rate is far less.


Pope, Caitlin Northcutt, Tyler Reed Bell, Despina Stavrinos. . (2017) Mechanisms behind distracted driving behavior: The role of age and executive function in the engagement of distracted driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention 98, 123-129.

In Mechanisms behind distracted driving behavior: The role of and executive function in the engagement of distracted driving, Caitlin Northcutt pope goes into detail about distraction and breaks it down into three different types. These types include: Visual (which include taking your eyes off the road for whatever reason), Manuel (which involve you taking your hands off of the wheel), and cognitive (which includes a distraction that takes your concentration off of the road and off of the immediate task of driving). (Pope). This being said, even talking to someone through speakerphone or Bluetooth head set, still mentally distracts you, and can increase your risk for collision, even though you still have two hands on the wheel. This is an interesting concept because people tend to look at hands free as sort of an outlet to be able to talk while driving, but still need to be aware that their attention is not fully on the road. This study applies to young adults, middle-aged adults, and adults aged sixty-five and older. Although younger adults were the main emphasis and participated in distracted driving the most, older adults still had involvement in distracted driving, just on a lower scale.



RYDBELGIUM. “The Impossible Texting & Driving Test.” YouTube. YouTube, 2012. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

This YouTube video takes an interesting approach of tackling texting and driving in Belgium. For young adults attempting to get their licenses and get on the road, they did a test in which they said they had to prove they were capable of texting and driving by taking this “safety Percussion” test, in which they had to text while driving and avoid obstacles while doing so. Most of them refused, worried they were going to crash and others would as well, which was interesting. The approach of forcing them to text while driving emphasized more on how dangerous it is, as apposed to if they were in the car alone trying to respond to a friends message quickly. Most of them stated they can’t do it, and claimed it was too dangerous. Texting and driving along with all distracted driving is too dangerous. This ties into my paper because the age group most prone to distracted driving collisions is young adults.


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