Antonia Abbey PH.D. goes into great detail in her work “Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Students” explaining and evaluating how sexual assault that occurs on college campuses is connect to alcohol consumption. Personal tales and and related literature on sexual assaults and rapes of college students are taken into account, and then premeditated theories of alcohol-related instances are researched and applied, ending with prevention suggestions and campus initiatives. Abbey states the difference between sexual assault, the term “used by researchers to describe the full range of forced sexual acts” ranging from “forced touching or kissing” to as far as “forced penetration” of any kind; and rape which is penetration from threat or force as well as “inability to give consent due to age, intoxication or mental status” (118). Several case studies were presented with statistics demonstrating percentages of women and college students on college campuses who were exposed to some form of sexual assault or coercion and how little they reported it. Koss et al.’s national study was the main research Abbey built her case on as it revealed both the women’s side, as well as the male view and how 50% of the incidents occurred with at least one individual under the influence of alcohol. Especially stressed is while “alcohol consumption and sexual assault frequently co-occur” it certainly does not “demonstrate that alcohol causes sexual assault” (119). She highlights that men who commit acts of sexual assault are prone to put the blame on alcohol but are still responsible for their actions, and that predetermined gender roles play an integral role in male domination.